Outline on the Social Causes of Juvenile Delinquency
  See Also:  
  -  An Overview of Methods
  -  An Overview of  Examples of Research in the Social Sciences
  Social Scientists of the Chicago School, circa 1900, were interested in urbanization & the social problems associated w/ it
  Through years of research & hundreds of studies they eventually concluded that there is a correlation btwn population density & delinquency
  Many Chicago theorists believed that crowding caused delinquency
  And indeed even today we see that delinquency rates are high in densely populated neighborhoods
  But as early as the 1930s, some social scientists began to question this result
  In 1984, Fischer demonstrated that virtually all the correlation btwn crowding & delinquency disappears if income is controlled
  Chicago School found that 
        Hi Crowding is correlated Hi Delinquency
        Lo Crowding is correlated Lo Delinquency
  Fischer found that 
        Lo Income  ::  Hi Crowding :: Hi Delinquency
        Lo Income  ::  Lo Crowding  ::  Hi Delinquency
        Hi Income  ::  Hi Crowding  ::  Lo  Delinquency
        Hi Income  ::  Lo Crowding :: Lo Delinquency
  In other words, Fisher found that the Level of Income is correlated w/ the Level of Crowding, which is Correlated w/ the Level of Delinquency  
  Fischer used a research technique called control, where he held constant all relevant variables except one in order to clearly see its effect
  Fischer used Income as a Control Variable
  Holding Income constant at a low level, Fischer found that delinquency was high in both crowded & uncrowded areas
  Holding Income constant at a high level, Fischer found that delinquency was low in both crowded & uncrowded areas
  The correlation btwn Crowding & Delinquency is Spurious, that is, there is an apparent, although false, association btwn two or more variables caused by some other variable  

The End